Ancient Egyptian history divided into thirty dynasties, from Menes to Alexander the Great, by an Egyptian priest called Manetho, in the reign of Ptolemy 2nd, 285 to 247B.C.
The dynasties do not always follow genealogical order; they sometimes present a politico-religious change.
However, the thirty dynasties have grouped into three Great Periods which are clearly defined:
The Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.
However, Memphis was the chosen headquarters of Narmer, who united Upper and Lower Egypt and founded the 1sr dynasty.
Also, it is known as the White Wall and strategically situated near the border between the two lands.
At first, it was probably no more than a simple fortification.
All the pharaohs of the 1st dynasty had two tombs:
One at Thinis near Abydos in Upper Egypt, and the other on the Saqqara plateau west of Memphis.
In the early dynastic period, the precedent for pharaohs to construct their burial grounds in the vicinity of their palaces seems to have set, and it is quite probable that Memphis was the site of the royal residence.
During the first two hundred years after the so-called unification, there was grave political unrest in the country.
Successive pharaohs, who all bora a traditional Horus title, tried to consolidate the union by combining the different traditions of Upper and Lower Egypt.
In an attempt to create a single common culture, the white crown of Upper Egypt and the red crown of Lower Egypt combined into a Double crown.
Memphis features prominently as a populous and enterprising city in the 5th dynasty.
Its central districts were the Whitewall, The south wall, and the house of the spirit of Ptah with its sacred enclosure where the Apis bull enjoyed privacy and protection.
When Saqqara became a royal burial ground, fine-quality funerary furniture and equipment produced.
Since the chief artisan of Memphis was also the High Priest of Ptah, the local deity soon seen as a patron deity of the arts; the inspiration behind metal worker, carpenter, potter, jeweler, and sculptor.
Artisans from neighboring areas were attracted to the opportunities for work in Memphis, and its boundaries expanded.
Two neighboring areas thus are drawn into its orbit.
One was a settlement in which you’re Sekhmet, the lion-goddess, and the other Nefertum, the lotus-god.
Combined they formed the Memphite triad of Ptah, the chief deity, Sekhmet his consort, and Nefertum, his son.
As befitted the increased popularity and influence of a local deity.
So, priests were recruited from the local population to maintain the temple of Path and to accept offerings on behalf of the gods.
The city of Memphis was the first capital of Egypt during the Pharaonic era.
The town is famous for its beautiful palm trees which used by the locals to create goods such as furniture,
baskets and mats.
For centuries the exact location of Memphis had forgotten.
Nowadays the area of Memphis it contains ruins of monuments of many kings
also, it includes a museum to house the biggest statue of the great king Ramesses 2nd.