Egypt has a whole story of human progress longer than can trace anywhere else on earth.
It’s ancient civilization dominated the eastern Mediterranean at a time when Europe, America, and most of western Asia were still in the stone age, and only came to an end with the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.
One of the leading causes of the remarkable homogeneity and continuity of the ancient civilization lies in the unique physical characteristics of the country.
Egypt is a land of high geographic isolation, ith well-defined boundaries.
To the north is the Mediterranean. To the east are the Arabian desert and the Red sea.
The limitless expanses of the Sahara desert stretch to the west.
And to the South, beyond Aswan, lie cataracts, successive rapids here the rocky formations infringe on the river, and the arid desert packs close against the hills to east and west of the confined valley.
Flowing between Egypt’s southern and northern borders is the Nile, one of many rivers to rise in equatorial Africa, but the only one to traverse north Africa.
It travels over4.000 miles and finds an outlet in the Mediterranean sea.
Before the construction of the High Dam, the mansion rains on the Ethiopian highlands caused the waters of the Blue Nile to swell and bear silt-laden waters to Egypt each year.
When the flood withdrew, a layer of rich, black, and extremely fertile soil deposited on the banks of the river and in the Delta.
The division of Egypt into the Two Lands, Upper, and Lower Egypt, is both physical and climatic. Upper Egypt lies south of the apex of the Delta. It is mostly barren, apart from the narrow ribbon of verdant land flanking the river, which represents the limits to which the waters of the Nile reach during the flood; the average summer-winter temperature is 20 C, and the air, especially in the South, dehydrated.
Lower Egypt, the triangle of the Delta, is completely fertile, and the climate is temperate; temperatures range from and an average of 30 C in summer to 13 C in Winter.
It believed that agriculture introduced into the Nile valley about 5000 B.C.
The cultivation and storage of grain resulted in a slow movement away from hunting and fishing as an economic activity.
Once grain could be stored, and people assured of regular food supply, they could settle down.
And since all the community didn’t need to devote their efforts to farming, some members began to specialize in the production of improved weapons, tools, and implements.
Flint-making mastered, stone vessels fashioned, palettes or slates for grinding cosmetics carved in the form of birds, animals, and fish, the artistic quality of which indicates that the people were no longer primarily concerned with survival.
Egypt has the oldest and the most important civilization in the world, such as Pharaonic, Greek-Roman, Coptic, and Islamic cultures.
The civilization of Ancient Egypt left many monuments and temples that have become attractions for modern-day visitors.
The currency here is the Egyptian pound E£ can also abbreviate as EGP and sometimes L.E.
The population of Egypt it’s almost 100 million persons, it has 27 provinces, and the capital is Cairo.
The essential provinces are: